Monday, April 27, 2009

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Surveying or land surveying is the technique and science of accurately determining the terrestrial or three-dimensional space position of points and the distances and angles between them. These points are usually on the surface of the Earth, and are often used to establish land maps and boundaries for ownership or governmental purposes. In order to accomplish their objective, surveyors use elements of geometry, engineering, trigonometry, mathematics, physics, and law.

Surveying has been an essential element in the development of the human environment since the beginning of recorded history (ca. 5000 years ago) and it is a requirement in the planning and execution of nearly every form of
construction. Its most familiar modern uses are in the fields of transport, building and construction, communications, mapping, and the definition of legal boundaries for land ownership.

Surveying techniques have existed throughout much of recorded history. In
ancient Egypt, when the Nile River overflowed its banks and washed out farm boundaries, boundaries were re-established by a rope stretcher, or surveyor, through the application of simple geometry. The nearly perfect squareness and north-south orientation of the Great Pyramid of Giza, built c. 2700 BC, affirm the Egyptians' command of surveying.
The Egyptian land register (3000 BC).

A recent reassessment of Stonehenge (c.2500 BC) indicates that the monument was set out by prehistoric surveyors using peg and rope geometry.

Under the Romans, land surveyors were established as a profession, and they established the basic measurements under which the Roman Empire was divided, such as a tax register of conquered lands (300 AD).

The rise of the
Caliphate led to extensive surveying throughout the Arab Empire. Arabic surveyors invented a variety of specialized instruments for surveying, including:
Instruments for accurate
levelling: A wooden board with a plumb line and two hooks, an equilateral triangle with a plumb line and two hooks, and a reed level.
A rotating
alhidade, used for accurate alignment.
A surveying
astrolabe, used for alignment, measuring angles, triangulation, finding the width of a river, and the distance between two points separated by an impassable obstruction.

In England, The
Domesday Book by William the Conqueror (1086)
covered all England
contained names of the land owners, area, land quality, and specific information of the area's content and habitants.
did not include maps showing exact locations

Continental Europe's
Cadastre was created in 1808
founded by Napoleon I (Bonaparte), "A good cadastre will be my greatest achievement in my civil law", Napoleon I
contained numbers of the parcels of land (or just land), land usage, names etc., and value of the land
100 million parcels of land, triangle survey, measurable survey, map scale: 1:2500 and 1:1250
spread fast around Europe, but faced problems especially in Mediterranean countries, Balkan, and Eastern Europe due to cadastre upkeep costs and troubles.
A cadastre loses its value if register and maps are not constantly updated.
Large-scale surveys are a necessary pre-requisite to map-making. In the late 1780s, a team from the
Ordnance Survey of Great Britain, originally under General William Roy began the Principal Triangulation of Britain using the specially built Ramsden theodolite.
Because of the fundamental value of land and real estate to the local and global economy, land surveying was one of the first professions to require Professional
Licensure. In many jurisdictions, the land surveyors license was the first Professional Licensure issued by the state, province, or feederal government.

Tuesday, April 7, 2009

Batu Sempadan Yg Mempunyai Lambang Bintang & Bulan Sabit. Diukur Pada Tahun 6.3.1933. ( 24 tahun sblm merdeka). :)